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1634results about "Vibration measurement in solids" patented technology

Method and apparatus for determining the state of fouling/cleaning of membrane modules

The fouling state of a polymeric membrane within the high pressure housing of a spiral wound or a hollow fiber membrane module is determined. An ultra sonic transducer positioned with its emitting face in physical engagement with the outer surface of the housing is pulse energized by a pulser/receiver device. A membrane echo signal is detected by a receiver of the pulser/receiver device. A reference echo signal indicative of a fouled or an unfouled state of the membrane is compared to the echo signal to determine the membrane fouling state. The echo to reference comparing step can be based upon comparing amplitude domain signals, comparing time-domain signals, comparing combinations of amplitude domain and time-domain signals, and comparing transformations of amplitude domain and time-domain signals. A clean or a fouled reference echo can be provided from a clean or a fouled membrane and then stored for use during a liquid separation process, or a clean reference echo signal can be obtained on-line from a second transducer whose echo signal is derived from an area of the membrane known to remain relatively unfouled during the liquid separation process, or a clean or fouled reference echo signal can be provided for later use during a cleaning process or during a liquid separation process. Multiple transducers and a switching network can sample the fouling state at different positions within the membrane module.

Fluid parameter measurement for industrial sensing applications using acoustic pressures

In industrial sensing applications at least one parameter of at least one fluid in a pipe 12 is measured using a spatial array of acoustic pressure sensors 14,16,18 placed at predetermined axial locations x1, x2, x3 along the pipe 12. The pressure sensors 14,16,18 provide acoustic pressure signals P1(t), P2(t), P3(t) on lines 20,22,24 which are provided to signal processing logic 60 which determines the speed of sound amix of the fluid (or mixture) in the pipe 12 using acoustic spatial array signal processing techniques with the direction of propagation of the acoustic signals along the longitudinal axis of the pipe 12. Numerous spatial array-processing techniques may be employed to determine the speed of sound amix. The speed of sound amix is provided to logic 48, which calculates the percent composition of the mixture, e.g., water fraction, or any other parameter of the mixture, or fluid, which is related to the sound speed amix. The logic 60 may also determine the Mach number Mx of the fluid. The acoustic pressure signals P1(t), P2(t), P3(t) measured are lower frequency (and longer wavelength) signals than those used for ultrasonic flow meters, and thus is more tolerant to inhomogeneities in the flow. No external source is required and thus may operate using passive listening. The invention will work with arbitrary sensor spacing and with as few as two sensors if certain information is known about the acoustic properties of the system. The sensor may also be combined with an instrument, an opto-electronic converter and a controller in an industrial process control system.
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