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2284results about "Analysing fluids using sonic/ultrasonic/infrasonic waves" patented technology

Frequency encoding of resonant mass sensors

A method for the detection of analytes using resonant mass sensors or sensor arrays comprises frequency encoding each sensor element, acquiring a time-domain resonance signal from the sensor or sensor array as it is exposed to analyte, detecting change in the frequency or resonant properties of each sensor element using a Fourier transform or other spectral analysis method, and classifying, identifying, and/or quantifying analyte using an appropriate data analysis procedure. Frequency encoded sensors or sensor arrays comprise sensor elements with frequency domain resonance signals that can be uniquely identified under a defined range of operating conditions. Frequency encoding can be realized either by fabricating individual sensor elements with unique resonant frequencies or by tuning or modifying identical resonant devices to unique frequencies by adding or removing mass from individual sensor elements. The array of sensor elements comprises multiple resonant structures that may have identical or unique sensing layers. The sensing layers influence the sensor elements' response to analyte. Time-domain signal is acquired, typically in a single data acquisition channel, and typically using either (1) a pulsed excitation followed by acquisition of the free oscillatory decay of the entire array or (2) a rapid scan acquisition of signal from the entire array in a direct or heterodyne configuration. Spectrum analysis of the time domain data is typically accomplished with Fourier transform analysis. The methods and sensor arrays of the invention enable rapid and sensitive analyte detection, classification and/or identification of complex mixtures and unknown compounds, and quantification of known analytes, using sensor element design and signal detection hardware that are robust, simple and low cost.

Piezoelectric resonator, process for the fabrication thereof including its use as a sensor element for the determination of the concentration of a substance contained in a liquid and/or for the determination of the physical properties of the liquid

Disclosed is a piezoelectric resonator, a process for the fabrication thereof and its use as a sensor element, which implemented in a through-flow cell, is integratable in a measurement system for the determination of the concentration of a substance contained in a liquid and/or for the determination of the physical properties of the liquid. The piezoelectric resonator is designed plane and is provided on its surface with electric contact areas for an electrode and a counter electrode, which is connectable to a signal source as well as to a measurement device. For measuring, the piezoelectric resonator is brought into contact with the to-be-examined liquid on one side, with the resonator responding to the accumulation of the mass of the to-be-detected substance or to a change in the physical properties of the liquid by changing its resonance frequency and/or oscillation amplitude.The present invention is distinguished by the fact that the piezoelectric resonator is provided with contact electrode areas which is contactable from one single side of the resonator. The resonator is the heart piece of a sensor element, which is integrated in a through-flow cell. The through-flow cell us insertable module-like in a measurement arrangement for determining the concentration of a substance contained in a liquid and/or determining the physical properties of the liquid.

Method and apparatus for determining the state of fouling/cleaning of membrane modules

The fouling state of a polymeric membrane within the high pressure housing of a spiral wound or a hollow fiber membrane module is determined. An ultra sonic transducer positioned with its emitting face in physical engagement with the outer surface of the housing is pulse energized by a pulser/receiver device. A membrane echo signal is detected by a receiver of the pulser/receiver device. A reference echo signal indicative of a fouled or an unfouled state of the membrane is compared to the echo signal to determine the membrane fouling state. The echo to reference comparing step can be based upon comparing amplitude domain signals, comparing time-domain signals, comparing combinations of amplitude domain and time-domain signals, and comparing transformations of amplitude domain and time-domain signals. A clean or a fouled reference echo can be provided from a clean or a fouled membrane and then stored for use during a liquid separation process, or a clean reference echo signal can be obtained on-line from a second transducer whose echo signal is derived from an area of the membrane known to remain relatively unfouled during the liquid separation process, or a clean or fouled reference echo signal can be provided for later use during a cleaning process or during a liquid separation process. Multiple transducers and a switching network can sample the fouling state at different positions within the membrane module.
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