Electrochemical cells, and more specifically, rechargeable batteries comprising lithium anodes for use in water and/or air environments, as well as non-aqueous and non-air environments, are presented. In one embodiment, an electrochemical cell includes an anode comprising lithium and a multi-layered structure positioned between the anode and an electrolyte of the cell. A multi-layered structure can include at least a first single-ion conductive material layer (e.g., a lithiated metal layer), and at least a first polymeric layer positioned between the anode and the single-ion conductive material. The invention also can provide an electrode stabilization layer positioned within the electrode, i.e., between one portion and another portion of an electrode, to control depletion and re-plating of electrode material upon charge and discharge of a battery. Advantageously, electrochemical cells comprising combinations of structures described herein are not only compatible with environments that are typically unsuitable for lithium, but the cells may be also capable of displaying long cycle life, high lithium cycling efficiency, and high energy density.