In order to determine whether an exposure apparatus is outputting the correct dose of radiation and its projection system is focusing the radiation correctly, a test pattern is used on a mask for printing a specific marker onto a substrate. This marker is then measured by an inspection apparatus, such as a scatterometer, to determine whether there are errors in focus and dose and other related properties. The test pattern is configured such that changes in focus and dose may be easily determined by measuring the properties of a pattern that is exposed using the mask. The test pattern may be a 2D pattern where physical or geometric properties, e.g., pitch, are different in each of the two dimensions. The test pattern may also be a one-dimensional pattern made up of an array of structures in one dimension, the structures being made up of at least one substructure, the substructures reacting differently to focus and dose and giving rise to an exposed pattern from which focus and dose may be determined.