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1870 results about "Geomorphology" patented technology

Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface. Geomorphologists seek to understand why landscapes look the way they do, to understand landform history and dynamics and to predict changes through a combination of field observations, physical experiments and numerical modeling. Geomorphologists work within disciplines such as physical geography, geology, geodesy, engineering geology, archaeology, climatology and geotechnical engineering. This broad base of interests contributes to many research styles and interests within the field.

Oil-gas well hydraulically-created-fracture expansion visualization experiment method and oil-gas well hydraulically-created-fracture expansion visualization experiment device

ActiveCN103485759AFor the purpose of visualizationSurveyEarth material testingEpoxyHigh pressure water
The invention relates to an oil-gas well hydraulically-created-fracture expansion visualization experiment method and an oil-gas well hydraulically-created-fracture expansion visualization experiment device. The device is composed of a rock sample chamber, a crustal loading unit, a simulation fracturing string, a high-speed camera, a high-pressure pumping unit, a data measuring and collecting unit and the like, and four transparent observation ports are formed on a top cover of the rock sample chamber. The method includes firstly, preparing a flat-plate-type rock sample, performing high-pressure-water cutting to preform a natural fracture, and filling the natural fracture with epoxy resin to form a filled-type fracture; secondly, performing water saturation on the rock sample for 3-5 days, and using epoxy resin to wrap the rock sample after water saturation; thirdly, loading three-axis stress on the rock sample, drilling a borehole under the condition that the three-axis stress is applied on the rock sample, and mounting the simulation fracturing string; finally, connecting a high-pressure pipeline with a constant-flux pump, pumping fracturing liquid, recording a fracture expansion path by the high-speed camera, and measuring pumping pressure changes by a pressure transmitter. By the method and the device, the hydraulically-created-fracture expansion path can be visualized on a plane, and a novel experiment method is provided for studying on a hydraulically-created-fracture expansion mechanism.

Compact sandstone reservoir complex netted fracture prediction method

The invention belongs to the petroleum exploration field, and concretely relates to a compact sandstone reservoir complex netted fracture prediction method. The method comprises the steps of: building a geological structure model and a fracture growth model; testing magnitudes and directions of ancient and modern crustal stresses; completing a rock mechanic parameter experiment; testing rock mechanic parameters and fracture stress sensitivities; developing a fracture rock multistage composite rupture criterion; performing a rock deformation physical test to obtain a peak value intensity; building a relation model between single axle state stress-strain and fracture bulk density; building a relation model between triaxial state stress-strain and fracture bulk density and occurrence; building a relation model between single axle state stress-strain and fracture bulk density; calculating and stimulating fracture parameters under modern conditions; and verifying the reliability of a fracture quantitative prediction result. The method can accurately obtain compact sandstone reservoir complex netted fracture parameters, and perform quantitative characterization, is suitable for quantitative prediction of any fracture mainly with a brittle reservoir, and reduces exploitation risks and costs.

Non-planar network fracturing control method for fractured reservoir

InactiveCN102606126AConstructionsFluid removalGeomorphologyPlanar network
The invention discloses a non-planar network fracturing construction control method for a fractured reservoir, which includes the step: firstly, performing pre-fracturing evaluation by (1) obtaining the intrinsic fracture development degree and directions according to FMI (formation micro-scanner image) logging and conventional logging data, (2) determining man-made fracture directions, (3) judging the angle relation between man-made fractures and intrinsic fractures, and (4) judging the non-planar network fracturing formation adequacy; secondly, establishing a stress field inversion constrained optimization model by utilizing a numerical value inversion method combining multi-well constrained optimization and finite elements so as to obtain numerical simulation of three-dimensional geostress states and rock mechanical parameters of a fractured reservoir area; thirdly, selecting corresponding construction parameters, and fracturing strata so as to force the intrinsic fractures and holes to open as large as possible; and fourthly, according to the opened equivalent number and openness of the intrinsic fractures explained by test fracturing, selecting grain sizes and use amount of propping agents matched with the intrinsic fractures or the holes, and leading fracturing fluid carrying the propping agents to enter the intrinsic fractures or the holes.

Advanced geological prediction method for underground engineering

InactiveCN102495434AEfficient use ofOptimizing the laws of objective cognitionGeological measurementsGeomorphologyApplicability domain
The invention discloses an advanced geological prediction method for underground engineering. With geology as pivot, the advanced geological prediction method for underground engineering comprises four stages of long-term advanced geological prediction, middle-term advanced geological prediction, short-term advanced geological prediction and impending advanced geological prediction. The advanced geological prediction method comprises the following steps of: (1) making advanced geological prediction tasks for underground engineering for the underground engineering clear; (2) collecting data; (3) carrying out field geological review; (4) perfecting the modification of a longitudinal section drawing of the underground engineering; and (5) adopting combined geological method, geophysical prospecting method and horizontal drilling method to obtain advanced geological prediction. The invention provides the advanced geological prediction method for underground engineering; with geology as pivot, comprehensive geological analysis is carried out in the whole process of advanced geological prediction for underground engineering and the long-term, middle-term, short-term and impending advanced geological predictions are closely combined together to implement combination of geological method, geophysical prospecting method and horizontal drilling method; the comprehensive application of the geophysical prospecting method is optimized; and the advanced geological prediction method for underground engineering, provided by the invention, has the advantages of improving the predication accuracy, reducing predication cost and obtaining wide application range, etc.

Comprehensive geological prediction method for karst tunnel construction

The invention discloses a comprehensive geological prediction method for karst tunnel construction, which includes the following steps: (1) long-distance detection; (2) geological radar detection: on the basis of the long-distance detection, adopting a geological radar to review a long-distance prediction result within a short-distance detection range; (3) adopting a horizontal protruded drill hole to carry out direct detection according to a review result; and (4) supplementary protruded blasthole detection: when a direct detection result is that a geologically abnormal body exists in the current tunneling construction area, a protruded blasthole needs to be adopted to carry out supplementary detection, and a supplementary detection result is used as supplementary detection data for the direct horizontal protruded drill hole detection result. The design of the comprehensive geological prediction method is rational, the comprehensive geological prediction method is easy and convenient to operate, and is highly operable, moreover, the mutual relation among a variety of chosen prediction methods is clear, the comprehensive detection effect is good, and the invention provides a systematic, rational and standard comprehensive prediction method for karst tunnel construction.

Construction method of hydroelectric power station surge chamber vertical shaft under soft rock geological condition

The invention relates to a method for constructing a drilled shaft of a surge chamber in a hydropower station under the condition of weak rock geology; the excavation diameter of the drilled shaft is more than or equal to 20 meters; and the depth of the drilled shaft is more than or equal to 50 meters. The method comprises the following steps: firstly, a safe prestress reinforcing measure is adopted; a prestress anchor rope is arranged in a side slope of the drilled shaft; the deep rock holes in the periphery of the drilled shaft are subjected to consolidation and grouting; the periphery of the drilled shaft is cast with reinforced concrete for locking a mouth, etc; the construction sequence of excavating the drilled shaft comprises that: a raise-boring machine drills a guide hole of phi 216 millimeters from top to bottom; the raise-boring machine enlarges and excavates a small guide well of phi 1, 400 millimeters; a slag slipping guide well of phi 2, 500 millimeters is enlarged and excavated manually from bottom to top; and the slag slipping guide well is enlarged and excavated from top to bottom. The slag slipping guide well is excavated by manual drilling and blasting; slag is naturally slipped and mechanically loaded in the bottom of the well; a large well is enlarged and excavated through drilling and blasting by a manual air drill; and the skimmed slag in a hydraulic backhoe well slips to the bottom of a passage through the slag slipping guide well and is mechanically loaded in the bottom of the well. The construction method has the characteristics of having reasonable construction arrangement, alternately and simultaneously carrying out a plurality of construction types and saving the construction period.

Method and system for monitoring paving thickness of high-level highway pavement in real time

ActiveCN103866673ARealize full-section acquisitionReduce one-sidednessUsing optical meansRoads maintainenceLaser rangingGeomorphology
The invention discloses a method and a system for monitoring paving thickness of a high-level highway pavement in real time, belonging to the field of road construction quality control. The method comprises the following steps: erecting an automatic tracking total station nearby a paving site, determining the position of an erection point through a resection survey method according to the known point coordinate, positioning and tracking a 360-degree prism according to enough short time interval by utilizing the automatic tracking total station, measuring the inclination angles of a transverse beam and a longitudinal beam of a platform trolley in the device by adopting an inclinometer, and measuring the distance from the transverse beam to the paved pavement by adopting a laser distance measuring sensor arranged on the transverse beam; calculating three-dimensional coordinates (x, y, z) of the position points of the paved pavement measured by each laser distance measuring sensor according to a spatial geometrical relation between each laser distance measuring sensor and the prism; projecting to obtain elevation z0 of the position point on a datum plane before paving; solving the difference between elevations z and elevation z0 to obtain the paving thickness; and judging whether the paving thickness at the position point accords with the control standard, otherwise, transmitting alarm information. The method is mainly applied to road construction quality control.

Hard rock composite TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) suitable for composite stratum and tunneling mode thereof

ActiveCN102364049AOvercome the shortcomings of limited use and the inability of TBM to be used in soft soil formationsWith excavation face balancing functionUnderground chambersTunnel liningGeomorphologyTunnel boring machine
The invention discloses hard rock shield construction equipment which is suitable for a single stratum of soft soil, soft rock, hard rock and the like and is simultaneously suitable for a soft and hard alternate stratum and a transition stratum, particularly silt, clay, powder, sand, gravel, decayed rock stratum. In the invention, two tunneling modes can be realized: an earth pressure balance tunneling mode and an open tunneling mode. When an excavated surface has poor stability or soft soil, a sand stratum and a sand gravel stratum with high water content are excavated, the earth pressure balance tunneling mode is used for construction; and when surrounding rock of the excavated surface can be self-stabilized, the open mode is used for construction when the rock stratum has high stability, particularly, a composite cutter head is used for tunneling. The equipment has extremely strong geological adaptability, is particularly suitable for construction of a soft and hard complex stratum of a municipal metro, and also has low construction interference and is convenient to control; and the overall manufacturing cost is greatly reduced compared with a hard rock tunneling machine.

Tunnel information tracing accurate grouting method

ActiveCN101832142AOptimizing the Number of Grouting HolesReduce the amount of waterUnderground chambersTunnel liningGlass fiberGeomorphology
The invention relates to the field of tunnel grouting, in particular to a tunnel information tracing accurate grouting method, which solves the problems of thick reinforcing ring, large number of drilled holes, long construction period and the like of the traditional curtain grouting method adopted in current tunnel grouting. The method comprises the processes of grout stopping wall building, arrangement of orifice tubes and grouting tubes, measurement of the water burst of a drill hole, packer test, hole arrangement, drilling operation and grouting, wherein the hole arrangement and the grouting are performed according to the sequence from an advance geological drill hole to other outer ring holes to an inner ring hole to a working surface stabilizing hole to an access hole to a pipe-shed hole; and steps such as advance big pipe-shed construction of a working chamber and working surface stabilization by using a glass fiber anchor rod are saved. In the invention, a break through is made in the conventional construction philosophy, grouting design and geological change are tightly combined together, a grouting mechanism of 'crack blocking, water reduction, surrounding rock fixation and stratum stabilization' is adopted, the grouting holes are reduced by 30 to 40 percent, grouting quality is improved, the safe and quick construction is guaranteed, major water burst and mud burst accidents are eliminated, and the environment is protected maximally.

Hard rock tunnel non-blasting digging blocking method and construction method

The invention relates to a hard rock tunnel non-blasting digging blocking method and a construction method. According to the method, a hole drilling core taking technology is utilized, mutually engaged cutting peripheral holes are formed along a tunnel digging contour line, so that a hole wall-shaped digging free face is formed on the periphery of a tunnel face; a hydraulic splitting machine splitting technology is used, in addition, the characteristic that the tensile intensity and the shearing-resistant intensity of rock are much smaller than the pressure-resistant intensity is utilized, the tunnel face digging blocking is firstly carried out, in each digging block, the synchronous splitting digging splitting surfaces do not exceed two, in addition, the two splitting surfaces are in large-angle obtuse angle intersection, in addition, at least one digging free face vertical to the tunnel face is included, then, the digging construction sequence from the lower side to the upper side and from the periphery to the middle is adopted, and the smaller splitting force is used for carrying out rock pulling cracking and shearing cutting splitting digging on the tunnel face along the splitting surface. The hard rock tunnel non-blasting digging blocking method has the advantages that the adverse influence of vibration, noise and dust in the hard rock digging construction can be eliminated, and the utilization rate of tunnel hole slag as building stone materials can be improved.
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