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15056 results about "Streamflow" patented technology

Streamflow, or channel runoff, is the flow of water in streams, rivers, and other channels, and is a major element of the water cycle. It is one component of the runoff of water from the land to waterbodies, the other component being surface runoff. Water flowing in channels comes from surface runoff from adjacent hillslopes, from groundwater flow out of the ground, and from water discharged from pipes. The discharge of water flowing in a channel is measured using stream gauges or can be estimated by the Manning equation. The record of flow over time is called a hydrograph. Flooding occurs when the volume of water exceeds the capacity of the channel.

Method for wide range gas flow system with real time flow measurement and correction

A gas delivery system accurately measures and optionally regulates mass flow rate in real time. A fluid conduit connects an inlet valve, calibration volume, flow restrictor, and outlet valve in series. Pressure and temperature sensors are coupled to the calibration volume. One or more pressure sensors may be attached across the flow restrictor. Alternatively, an absolute pressure sensor may be attached upstream of the flow restrictor. One embodiment of differential pressure sensors comprises a floating reference differential pressure sensor, including a first transducer attached to the fluid conduit upstream of the flow restrictor and a second transducer attached to the conduit downstream of the flow restrictor. In this embodiment, each transducer receives a reference pressure from a reference source, and optionally, after the calibration volume is charged, the floating reference differential pressure transducers are calibrated. When gas flow is initiated, differential and/or absolute pressure measurements are repeatedly taken, and a measured mass flow rate calculated thereon. Gas flow is adjusted until the measured mass flow rate reaches a target mass flow. Using the temperature/pressure sensors at the calibration volume, repeated calculations of actual flow rate are made to uncover any discrepancy between actual and measured mass flow rates. Whenever a discrepancy is found, the manner of calculating measured mass flow is conditioned to account for the discrepancy; thus, the measured mass flow rate more accurately represents the actual mass flow rate thereby providing an actual mass flow rate more accurately achieving the target mass flow rate.

Method of respiratory gas analysis using a metabolic calorimeter

A method of determining a respiratory parameter for a subject using an indirect calorimeter is provided. The indirect calorimeter includes a respiratory connector for passing inhaled and exhaled gases, a flow pathway operable to receive and pass inhaled and exhaled gases having a flow tube within the flow pathway through which the inhaled and exhaled gases pass, a flow meter for determining an instantaneous flow volume of the inhaled and exhaled gases, a component gas concentration sensor for determining an instantaneous fraction of a predetermined component gas and a computation unit having a processor and a memory. The method includes the steps of initializing the indirect calorimeter and the subject breathing into the respiratory connector if the indirect calorimeter is initialized, sensing the flow volume of the inhaled and exhaled gases passing through the flow pathway using the flow meter and transmitting a signal representing the sensed flow volume to the computation unit. The method also includes the steps of sensing a concentration of a predetermined component gas as the inhaled and exhaled gases pass through the flow pathway using the component gas sensor, and transmitting a signal representing the sensed concentration of the predetermined component gas to the computation unit. The method further includes the steps of calculating at least one respiratory parameter for the subject as the subject breathes through the calorimeter using the sensed flow volume and the sensed concentration of the predetermined component gas, and providing the subject with the at least one respiratory parameter.

High effectiveness cooled turbine vane or blade

A robust multiple-walled, multi-pass, high cooling effectiveness cooled turbine vane or blade designed for ease of manufacturability, minimizes cooling flows on highly loaded turbine rotors. The vane or blade design allows the turbine inlet temperature to increase over current technology levels while simultaneously reducing turbine cooling to low levels. A multi-wall cooling system is described, which meets the inherent conflict to maximize the flow area of the cooling passages while retaining the required section thickness to meet the structural requirements. Independent cooling circuits for the vane or blade's pressure and suction surfaces allow the cooling of the airfoil surfaces to be tailored to specific heat load distributions (that is, the pressure surface circuit is an independent forward flowing serpentine while the suction surface is an independent rearward flowing serpentine). The cooling air for the independent circuits is supplied through separate passages at the base of the vane or blade. The cooling air follows intricate passages to feed the serpentine thin outer wall passages, which incorporate pin fins, turbulators, etc. These passages, while satisfying the aero/thermal/stress requirements, are of a manufacturing configuration that may be cast with single crystal materials using conventional casting techniques.
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