The invention relates to an adaptive optical aster target imaging system based on image clearing principle, mainly comprising receiving telescope, spectroscope, reflection deformable mirror, high-voltage amplifier, photo detector, main control computer, control algorithm, high-speed digital processor and image-quality diagnosis system. The invention can make use aster target itself as beacon. It is not need that dear wave-front sensor is used to measure the wave-front error of beam from space target. Image clearing index, which can reflect wave-front error information, can be used to measure quality factor for system imaging ability. By controlling the reflection deformable mirror to correct the wave-front error the quality factor can achieve or approach the optimal value. The invention is provided with simple structure, easy regulation, real-time imaging, convenient control, and eliminating or decreasing bacon no-isoplanatic error. Under the condition of very strong atmospheric turbulence aster target can be imaged effectively. The cost of conventional adaptive optical system for imaging compensation of aster target can be decreased greatly.