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355results about How to "Reduce rate" patented technology

Chemical cleaning backwash for normally immersed membranes

A method of chemically cleaning normally immersed suction driven filtering membranes involves backwashing a chemical cleaner through the membranes while the tank is empty in repeated pulses in which the chemical cleaner is pumped to the membranes separated by waiting periods in which chemical cleaner is not pumped to the membranes. The duration and frequency of the pulses is preferably chosen to provide an appropriate contact time of the chemical, preferably without allowing the membranes to dry between pulses and without using excessive amounts of chemical. In other aspects, such membranes preferably used for filtering water to produce potable water in a batch process are backwashed with a chemical cleaner substantially at the same time as the tank is being drained. The chemical cleaner is optionally supplied in pulses. In other aspects, chemical cleaner backwashes are started before the membranes foul significantly and are repeated at least once per week to reduce the rate of decline in the permeability of the membranes so that intensive recovery cleaning is required less frequently. When performed in situ, each cleaning event comprises (a) stopping permeation and any agitation of the membranes, (b) backwashing the membranes with a chemical cleaner in repeated pulses and (c) resuming agitation, if any, and permeation. The pulses last for between 10 seconds and 100 seconds and there is a time between pulses between 50 seconds and 6 minutes. Each cleaning event typically involves between 5 and 20 pulses.

Cannula stent

A stent (30) formed from cannula and having flexible segments (31) and high hoop strength segments (32) alternating therealong. Longitudinal struts or tie bars (41) interconnect the segments. Minimal length reduction of the strut occurs upon expansion. In the high hoop strength segment (32), struts (37) in a zig-zag configuration (Gianturco Z-stent) are initially parallel in the unexpanded strut condition. In the flexible segment (31), struts (58) extend from a respective C-shaped bend (59) to converge at the opposite ends thereof when unexpanded. In one embodiment, certain adjacent struts (39–41) of the hoop segment are spaced apart by elongated openings or gaps (46, 48) interposed therebetween and interconnected at their respective ends (42, 44) to form a T-shaped strut interconnection (45). The selected width (50, 51) of the first and third struts (54, 57) increases toward the ends (47, 48) of the elongated openings (46, 48) adjacent the strut interconnection (45). This strut width increase about one end of the strut significantly reduces the tensile strain exhibited about the opening end when the stent is radially expanded during manufacture. The tip length (52, 55) of the struts about the interconnection (45) is also adjusted (increased) along with the other C-shaped strut interconnections (59, 71) to further distribute the tensile strain developed during radial expansion.
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