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9504results about "Water/sewage treatment" patented technology

Method and apparatus for determining the state of fouling/cleaning of membrane modules

The fouling state of a polymeric membrane within the high pressure housing of a spiral wound or a hollow fiber membrane module is determined. An ultra sonic transducer positioned with its emitting face in physical engagement with the outer surface of the housing is pulse energized by a pulser/receiver device. A membrane echo signal is detected by a receiver of the pulser/receiver device. A reference echo signal indicative of a fouled or an unfouled state of the membrane is compared to the echo signal to determine the membrane fouling state. The echo to reference comparing step can be based upon comparing amplitude domain signals, comparing time-domain signals, comparing combinations of amplitude domain and time-domain signals, and comparing transformations of amplitude domain and time-domain signals. A clean or a fouled reference echo can be provided from a clean or a fouled membrane and then stored for use during a liquid separation process, or a clean reference echo signal can be obtained on-line from a second transducer whose echo signal is derived from an area of the membrane known to remain relatively unfouled during the liquid separation process, or a clean or fouled reference echo signal can be provided for later use during a cleaning process or during a liquid separation process. Multiple transducers and a switching network can sample the fouling state at different positions within the membrane module.

Image display panel manufacturing method, image display device manufacturing method, and image disiplay device

In the case of filling and setting the liquid powders or the particles in a plurality of cells formed by the partition walls on the substrate, the method includes the steps of: setting a nozzle at an upper portion of a container; setting the substrate, on which the partition walls are arranged, at a lower portion of the container; scattering the liquid powders or the particles dispersed in a gas from the nozzle arranged at the upper portion in the container; and filling the liquid powders or the particles in the cells on the substrate arranged at the lower portion in the container. After this filling, the method further includes: a filling step for filling a predetermined amount of the liquid powders or the particles in spaces constituting the image display cells isolated by the partition walls; a removing step for removing unnecessary liquid powders or unnecessary particles remaining on the partition walls in the filling step; a substrate stacking step for stacking the transparent substrate and the opposed substrate via the partition walls and applying a sealing agent at a peripheral portion of the substrate so as to make an atmosphere between the transparent substrate and the opposed substrate uniform; and an electrode adhering step for connecting a circuit for displaying the image to the electrode so as to form a module.
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