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1647 results about "Kerosene" patented technology

Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum. It is widely used as a fuel in aviation as well as households. Its name derives from Greek: κηρός (keros) meaning wax, and was registered as a trademark by Canadian geologist and inventor Abraham Gesner in 1854 before evolving into a genericized trademark. It is sometimes spelled kerosine in scientific and industrial usage. The term kerosene is common in much of Argentina, Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, and the United States, while the term paraffin (or a closely related variant) is used in Chile, eastern Africa, South Africa, Norway, and in the United Kingdom. The term lamp oil, or the equivalent in the local languages, is common in the majority of Asia and "Earth Oil" in some parts of southern Asia.Liquid paraffin (called mineral oil in the US) is a more viscous and highly refined product which is used as a laxative. Paraffin wax is a waxy solid extracted from petroleum.

Systems, methods, and compositions for production of synthetic hydrocarbon compounds

A process and system for producing hydrocarbon compounds or fuels that recycle products of hydrocarbon compound combustion—carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide, or both, and water. The energy for recycling is electricity derived from preferably not fossil based fuels, like from nuclear fuels or from renewable energy. The process comprises electrolysing water, and then using hydrogen to reduce externally supplied carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, then using so produced carbon monoxide together with any externally supplied carbon monoxide and hydrogen in Fischer-Tropsch reactors, with upstream upgrading to desired specification fuels—for example, gasoline, jet fuel, kerosene, diesel fuel, and others. Energy released in some of these processes is used by other processes. Using adiabatic temperature changes and isothermal pressure changes for gas processing and separation, large amounts of required energy are internally recycled using electric and heat distribution lines. Phase conversion of working fluid is used in heat distribution lines for increased energy efficiency. The resulting use of electric energy is less than 1.4 times the amount of the high heating value of combustion of so produced hydrocarbon compounds when carbon dioxide is converted to carbon monoxide in the invention, and less than 0.84 when carbon monoxide is the source.
Owner:FUELCOR LLC

Liquid fuel compositions

The present invention provides a liquid fuel composition comprising a distillation fraction of a component having at least one C4+ compound derived from a water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon prepared by a method comprising:
    • providing water and a water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon comprising a C1+O1+ hydrocarbon in an aqueous liquid phase and/or a vapor phase;
    • providing H2;
    • catalytically reacting in the liquid and/or vapor phase the oxygenated hydrocarbon with the H2 in the presence of a deoxygenation catalyst at a deoxygenation temperature and deoxygenation pressure to produce an oxygenate comprising a C1+O1-3 hydrocarbon in a reaction stream; and
    • catalytically reacting in the liquid and/or vapor phase the oxygenate in the presence of a condensation catalyst at a condensation temperature and condensation pressure to produce the C4+ compound,
    • wherein the C4+ compound comprises a member selected from the group consisting of C4+ alcohol, C4+ ketone, C4+ alkane, C4+ alkene, C5+ cycloalkane, C5+ cycloalkene, aryl, fused aryl, and a mixture thereof;
wherein the liquid fuel composition is selected from:
  • a gasoline composition having an initial boiling point in the range of from 15° C. to 70° C. (IP123), a final boiling point of at most 230° C. (IP123), a RON in the range of from 85 to 110 (ASTM D2699) and a MON in the range of from 75 to 100 (ASTM D2700);
  • a diesel fuel composition having an initial boiling point in the range of from 130° C. to 230° C. (IP123), a final boiling point of at most 410° C. (IP123) and a cetane number in the range of from 35 to 120 (ASTM D613); and
  • a kerosene composition having an initial boiling point in the range of from 80 to 150° C., a final boiling point in the range of from 200 to 320° C. and a viscosity at −20° C. in the range of from 0.8 to 10 mm2/s (ASTM D445).
  • Owner:SHELL USA INC

    Process for the preparation of middle distillates

    A process for the preparation of one or more hydrocarbon fuel products boiling in the kero/diesel range from a stream of hydrocarbons produced in a Fischer-Tropsch process, in which process synthesis gas is converted into liquid hydrocarbons, at least a part of the hydrocarbons boiling above the kero/diesel range, having the following steps:
      • [0002]
      • (1) hydrocracking/hydroisomerizing at least a part of the Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbons stream at a conversion per pass of at most 80 wt % of the material boiling above 370° C. into material boiling below 370° C.;
      • [0003]
      • (2) separating the product stream obtained in step (1) into one or more light fractions boiling below the kero/diesel boiling range, one or more fractions boiling in the kero/diesel boiling range and a heavy fraction boiling above the kero/diesel boiling range;
      • [0004]
      • (3) hydrocracking/hydroisomerizing the major part of the heavy fraction obtained in step (2) at a conversion per pass of at most 80 wt % of the material boiling above 370° C. into material boiling below 370° C.;
      • [0005]
      • (4) separating the product stream obtained in step (3) into one or more light fractions boiling below the kero/diesel boiling range, one or more fractions boiling in the kero/diesel boiling range and a heavy fraction boiling above the kero/diesel boiling range; and,
      • [0006]
      • (5) hydrocracking/hydroisomerizing the major part of the heavy fraction obtained in step (4) in the hydrocracking/hydroisomerizing process described in step (1) and/or step (3), in which process the Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbons stream comprises at least 35 wt % C30+ (based on total amount of hydrocarbons in the Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbons stream) and in which stream the weight ratio C60+/C30+ is at least 0.2.
    Owner:SHELL USA INC

    Recovery method of copper indium gallium selenide thin-film solar panel

    The invention provides a recovery method of a copper indium gallium selenide thin-film solar panel. The method comprises the steps that: the copper indium gallium selenide thin-film solar panel is crushed into pieces; the pieces are soaked by using a H2SO4+H2O2 system, such that a soaking liquid is obtained; the soaking liquid is filtered, such that a first leachate is obtained; with a first phase ratio of 1, the first leachate is extracted by using an extraction agent; separation is carried out, such that a first extraction liquid and a first raffinate are obtained; the extraction agent is composed of 30% of P2O4 and 70% of kerosene by volume percentage, the extraction and balance time is 5-20min; an HCl solution is adopted as a stripping agent, and the first extraction liquid is striped by using a second phase ratio, such that In and stripping residual liquid are obtained; a reducing agent is added into the first raffinate; when a reduction reaction is finished, crude Se and a second leachate are obtained by filtering; alkali is added into the second leachate, and a pH value is regulated such that the pH value is constantly higher than 14; when a reaction is finished, filtering is carried out, such that a filtering slag comprising a hydroxide of Cu and a water solution comprising Ga are obtained; the alkali is NaOH, the pH value adjustment process is to add the NaOH in the reaction process after pH=14 so that the pH is always kept more than 14 during the reaction process, and the reaction time is kept for 0.5-2h; and the water solution is electrolyzed.
    Owner:FIRST SEMICON MATERIALS

    Method and device for machining insulating ceramic by reciprocating wire-cut electrical discharge machining

    InactiveCN102166676AReduce processing costsOmit productionMachined surfaceKerosene
    The invention relates to the technical field of insulating ceramics machining. In order to solve the problems that the conventional insulating ceramic machining method and device are low in machining accuracy and low in quality of the machined surface, the invention provides a method for machining insulating ceramic by reciprocating wire-cut electrical discharge machining. The method comprises the following steps of: immersing insulating ceramics of which the outer surface is fixed with an auxiliary electrode in electrospark liquid or kerosene working solution; putting a wire electrode into the working solution, connecting the auxiliary electrode and the wire electrode to the anode and cathode of a high-frequency pulse power supply respectively, and controlling the distance between the auxiliary electrode and the wire electrode until electrical discharge can be realized; and controlling relative motion between the wire electrode and the insulating ceramics according to the machining requirement. The invention also provides a device, wherein the insulating ceramics of which the outer surface is fixed with the auxiliary electrode and the wire electrode are arranged in the electrospark liquid or kerosene working solution and are connected with the anode and cathode of the high-frequency pulse power supply respectively; and the insulating ceramics are fixed on a work table and are driven by the work table to move. The method is stable in machining process and favorable for popularization and application.
    Owner:HARBIN INST OF TECH

    Super-hydrophobic/super-oleophilicity copper wire mesh for oil and water separation and preparation method and application thereof

    The invention discloses a super-hydrophobic/super-oleophilicity copper wire mesh for oil and water separation and a preparation method and application thereof. The preparation method comprises the steps that firstly, the copper wire mesh is ultrasonically cleaned through diluted hydrochloric acid, absolute ethyl alcohol and deionized water respectively and dried through nitrogen; chemical deposition liquid of copper sulfate and a sodium thiosulfate solution is prepared; the cleaned copper wire mesh is placed into the chemical deposition liquid for a deposition reaction; the copper wire mesh is taken out and cleaned through the deionized water and dried in the air; the dried copper wire mesh is placed in a solution of a curing agent and polydimethylsiloxane with hydroxyl sealed end, and the copper wire mesh is taken out and heated. No expensive fluorine-containing substance is needed, the copper wire mesh has the advantages that the preparation technology is simple, reaction conditions are mild, no strong acidity or strong basicity or corrosivity reagents are needed, and no harm is caused to the environment, separation of oily wastewater can be achieved rapidly and efficiently, the good separation effect on chloroform, normal hexane, petroleum ether, plant oil, diesel oil, aviation kerosene and the like is achieved, and separation of strong acidity, strong basicity and high salinity oily wastewater can be achieved.
    Owner:SOUTH CHINA UNIV OF TECH

    High oil absorption polyurethane foam and preparation method thereof

    The invention relates to a high oil absorption polyurethane foam which comprises the following components in parts by weight: 20 to 40 parts of isocyanate, 35 to 60 parts of polyol, 0.5 to 3 parts of catalyst, 0.5 to 3 parts of foam stabilizer, 5 to 10 parts of foaming agent, 2 to 10 parts of opening agent,5 to 20 parts of flame retardant, 5 to 15 parts of silicon rubber spherical micro powder and 0.5 to 2 parts of coupling agent. The preparation method comprises the following technology steps of weighing, prepolymerization, dispersing, polymerization foaming reaction, curing and peeling at room temperature and cutting. The high oil absorption polyurethane foam can be used for the absorption and recycle of various oil products (crude oil, engine oil, diesel fuel, gasoline, kerosene and the like) on water surfaces, ground or surfaces of other objects, and various oil soluble organic compounds (benzene, methylbenzene, dimethylbenzene, chloroform, nitrobenzene, chlorobenzene and the like). The invention has the advantages of simple technology and low cost, obviously improves the dispersing effect of the silicon rubber spherical micro powder in a polymerization system by using ultrasonic technique, and greatly increase the oil absorption quantity and oil absorption rate of the polyurethane foam by adding the silicon rubber spherical micro powder.
    Owner:CHINA BLUESTAR CHENGRAND CO LTD +1
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