Provided are methods for the detection and diagnosis of sickle cell. The methods are based on the discovery that abnormal levels of selected analytes in sample fluid, typically blood samples, of patients who are at risk are supportive of a diagnosis of sickle cell. At least two new biomarkers for sickle cell are thus disclosed, Eotaxin and Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1. Altogether the concentrations of eleven analytes provide a sensitive and selective picture of the patient's condition, namely, whether the patient is suffering from sickle cell. Other important biomarkers for sickle cell are described, including but not limited to IL-12p40, SHBG, MMP-9, Adiponectin, Haptoglobin, FGF basic, IgM, Growth Hormone, Factor VII. Kits containing reagents to assist in the analysis of fluid samples are also described.