The present invention relates to methods and compositions for reducing Distress Dysfunction by restoring and maintaining homeostatic balance in the neurotransmitter systems underlying the Stress Response and the experience of distress and hedonic tone. Distress Dysfunction refers to the experience of dysfunctional emotional and physical distress that interferes with the individual's quality of life and functioning. A novel understanding of the bimodal opioid modulation of pain, and its impact, through serotonergic, dopaminergic, epinephrinergic, and norepinephrinergic processes, on hedonic tone, leads directly to new generation pharmaceutical formulations that are remarkably safe and effective for the treatment of a wide variety of Distress Dysfunctions, including anxiety, depression, anger, insomnia, mood disorders, eating disorders, sexual problems, pain, substance and behavioral addictions, gastrointestinal disorders, autistic spectrum disorders, attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorders, and other emotional and physical distress disorders. The foundation of this discovery is the power of Receptor Switchers, such as ultra-low-dose and very-low-dose opioid antagonists and GM1 ganglioside attenuators, in blocking acute and protracted excitatory opioid receptor signaling. Co-administration of Receptor Switchers with Endorphin Enhancers, such as specific cAMP PDE inhibitors and excitatory amino acids, is an excellent formulation for restoring healthy homeostatic balance to the endogenous opioid system, using the body's endorphins to reduce emotional and physical distress, and through synergistic and homeostatic processes, restoring positive hedonic tone. The addition of Synergistic Enhancers, such as amino acids, SSRI and SNRI agents, and non-opioid analgesics, as well as Exogenous Opioids, enhances and prolongs these therapeutic benefits. The novel principles discovered by this invention also teach a new generation of safe and effective formulations for the treatment of respiratory conditions, neuropathy, and nociceptive pain.