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921 results about "Oxidation state" patented technology

The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes the degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound. Conceptually, the oxidation state, which may be positive, negative or zero, is the hypothetical charge that an atom would have if all bonds to atoms of different elements were 100% ionic, with no covalent component. This is never exactly true for real bonds.

PMOS transistor with compressive dielectric capping layer

A salicide layer is deposited on the source/drain regions of a PMOS transistor. A dielectric capping layer having residual compressive stress is formed on the salicide layer by depositing a plurality of PECVD dielectric sublayers and plasma-treating each sublayer. Compressive stress from the dielectric capping layer is uniaxially transferred to the PMOS channel through the source-drain regions to create compressive strain in the PMOS channel. To form a compressive dielectric layer, a deposition reactant mixture containing A1 atoms and A2 atoms is provided in a vacuum chamber. Element A2 is more electronegative than element A1, and A1 atoms have a positive oxidation state and A2 atoms have a negative oxidation state when A1 atoms are bonded with A2 atoms. A deposition plasma is generated by applying HF and LF radio-frequency power to the deposition reactant mixture, and a sublayer of compressive dielectric material is deposited. A post-treatment plasma is generated by applying HF and LF radio-frequency power to a post-treatment gas that does not contain at least one of A1 atoms and A2 atoms. Compressive stress in the dielectric sublayer is increased by treating the sublayer in the post-treatment plasma. Processes of depositing a dielectric sublayer and post-treating the sublayer in plasma are repeated until a desired thickness is achieved. The resulting dielectric layer has residual compressive stress.
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