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3778results about "Indirect carbon-dioxide mitigation" patented technology

Power plant with emissions recovery

A power plant including an air separation unit (ASU) arranged to separate nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and argon from air and produce a stream of substantially pure liquid oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and argon; a steam generator, fired or unfired, arranged to combust a fuel, e.g., natural gas, liquefied natural gas, synthesis gas, coal, petroleum coke, biomass, municipal solid waste or any other gaseous, liquid or solid fuel in the presence of air and a quantity of substantially pure oxygen gas to produce an exhaust gas comprising water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, nitrogen, sulfur oxides and other trace gases, and a steam-turbine-generator to produce electricity, a primary gas heat exchanger unit for particulate/acid gas/moisture removal and a secondary heat exchanger arranged to cool the remainder of the exhaust gases from the steam generator. Exhaust gases are liquefied in the ASU thereby recovering carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, nitrogen, sulfur oxides, oxygen, and all other trace gases from the steam generator exhaust gas stream. The cooled gases are liquefied in the ASU and separated for sale or re-use in the power plant. Carbon dioxide liquid is transported from the plant for use in enhanced oil recovery or for other commercial use. Carbon dioxide removal is accomplished in the ASU by cryogenic separation of the gases, after directing the stream of liquid nitrogen from the air separation unit to the exhaust gas heat exchanger units to cool all of the exhaust gases including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur oxides, and other trace gases.

Apparatus and process for production of high purity hydrogen

The invention relates to a new and improved process and apparatus for the production of high purity hydrogen by steam reforming. The apparatus is an integrated flameless distributed combustion-membrane steam reforming (FDC-MSR) or reactor for steam reforming of a vaporizable hydrocarbon to produce H2 and CO2, with minimal CO, and minimal CO in the H2 stream. The flameless distributed combustion drives the steam reforming reaction which pro-vides great improvements in heat exchange efficiency and load following capabilities. The reactor may contain multiple flameless distributed combustion chambers and multiple hydrogen-selective, hydrogen-permeable, membrane tubes. The feed and reaction gases may flow through the reactor either radially or axially. A further embodiment of the invention involves producing high purity hydrogen by dehydrogenation using an integrated FDC-membrane de-hydrogenation reactor. A still further embodiment of the invention involves a zero emission hybrid power system wherein the produced hydrogen is used to power a high-pressure internally manifolded molten carbonate fuel cell. In addition, the design of the FDC-SMR powered fuel cell makes it possible to capture good concentrations of CO2 for sequestration or use in other processes.

Semi-closed brayton cycle gas turbine power systems

A semi-closed combined cycle power system 100 is provided which can also convert an open combined cycle gas turbine 10 into a non-polluting zero emissions power system. The prior art open combined cycle gas turbine 10 includes a compressor 20 which compresses air A' and combusts the air A' with a fuel, such as natural gas. The products of combustion and the remaining portions of the air form the exhaust E' which is expanded through the turbine 40. The turbine 40 drives the compressor 20 and outputs power. The exhaust E' exits the turbine 40 and then can optionally be routed through a heat recovery steam generator 50 to function as a combined cycle. According to this invention, the exhaust E' is not emitted into the atmosphere, but rather is routed to a divider 110. The divider 110 includes two outlets for the exhaust E' including a return duct 120 and a separation duct 130 which both receive a portion of the exhaust E'. The return duct 120 routes a portion of the exhaust E' back to the compressor 20. Before reaching the compressor 20, an oxygen duct 150 adds additional oxygen to the exhaust E' to form a gas mixture C which includes CO2 and steam from the exhaust E' and oxygen from the oxygen duct 150. This gas mixture C has characteristics which mimic those of air, so that the compressor 20 need not be modified to effectively compress the gas mixture C. The gas mixture C is compressed within the compressor 20 and routed to the combustor 30 where the fuel combusts with the oxygen of the gas mixture C' and produces exhaust E' which is substantially entirely CO2 and steam. This exhaust E' is routed through the turbine 40 and expanded to drive the compressor 20 and output power. The exhaust E' exits the turbine 40 and is routed back to the divider 110, preferably by way of a heat recovery steam generator 50 or other heat removal device, so that the semi-closed cycle operates as a combined cycle power system 100. The divider 110 directs a portion of the exhaust E' to a separation duct 130 which leads to a condenser 140. In the condenser 140 the exhaust E' is separated by condensation of the steam/water portion of the exhaust and removal of the remaining CO2 as gas from the condenser 140. The only exhaust from the semi-closed power system 100 is water and CO2 from the condenser. The CO2 exhaust is substantially pure and ready for appropriate further handling and disposal. Hence, no pollutants are emitted from the semi-closed power system 100. The return duct 120 can

Multi-purpose, multi-oxy-fuel, power burner/injector/oxygen lance device

A multi-purpose, multi-oxy-fuel High Temperature Power Burner/Injector/Oxygen Lance, Mechanical System Apparatus Device, for steelmaking from recycled scrap and/or virgin ferrous charge, which can be employed in multi-oxy-fuel (natural gas; pulverized carbonaceous matter; heavy oil), especially by Oxygen Combusted mixture of Natural Gas/Pulverized Carbonaceous Matter in High Temperature Power Burner Mode, for efficient and rapid melting of solid ferrous charge (cold or preheated) in a special steelmaking Metallurgical Furnace or Open Hearth Furnace, Tandem Furnace, BOF, EAF, as its augmenting or only source of thermal energy; more than one Device in Oxygen-Natural Gas/Pulverized Carbonaceous Matter Power Burner Mode, can be employed as the only source of thermal energy in a modified, originally Electric Arc Furnace, as total replacement of Graphite Electrodes and Electric Arc System, the replacement being noticeably more primary energy efficient than the thermal energy provided by Graphite Electrode/Arc System; it also can be employed in an Solid Particles Injector Mode, for injecting of adequately granulated carbonaceous materials or lime into the molten steel for its carburizing or for foamy slag control; further it can be employed in a natural gas shrouded, pulsating oxygen stream, for vertically to the charge oriented soft blow supersonic Oxygen Injection Lance Mode, for decarburization of the molten metal contained in the hearth of the metallurgical furnace and foamy slag control; in one of the embodiments-generally arcuate-pivotally mounted, liquid media cooled composite body, is pivoted into and out of a furnace vessel through a small opening in the shell wall for auto-regulated constant optimal positioning of the Composite Body Tip against solid or molten charge, in each and all multi-purpose modes; furthermore, when inserted into the furnace vessel, the arcuate composite body can be rotated about its longitudinal axis for directing the oxy-fuel high temperature flame towards unmolten charge in the furnace; in an other-generally linear-embodiment, the liquid cooled composite body is attached to the mast type carrier allowing vertical movement of the composite body which enters the furnace vessel through a small opening in the furnace roof; the bimetallic, liquid cooled special tip assembly of both-arcuate and linear embodiments-of the composite body includes easy replaceable, independent, multi-opening nozzles, mounted in a protective, retracted position inside of the liquid cooled special tip assembly.
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