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40258 results about "Aqueous solution" patented technology

An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water. It is mostly shown in chemical equations by appending (aq) to the relevant chemical formula. For example, a solution of table salt, or sodium chloride (NaCl), in water would be represented as Na⁺(aq) + Cl⁻(aq). The word aqueous (comes from aqua) means pertaining to, related to, similar to, or dissolved in, water. As water is an excellent solvent and is also naturally abundant, it is a ubiquitous solvent in chemistry. Aqueous solution is water with a pH of 7.0 where the hydrogen ions (H⁺) and hydroxide ions (OH⁻) are in Arrhenius balance (10⁻⁷).

Method and apparatus for amplifying nucleic acids

Provided are a method and apparatus for amplifying nucleic acids. The method includes introducing into a reaction vessel via different inlet channels a reactant aqueous solution containing reactants for nucleic acid amplification and a fluid that is phase-separated from the reactant aqueous solution and does not participate in amplification reaction, creating a plurality of reactant aqueous solution droplets surrounded by the fluid by contacting the reactant aqueous solution with the fluid in the reaction vessel, and amplifying the nucleic acids in the reactant aqueous solution droplets. The apparatus includes a substrate, a reaction vessel formed inside of the substrate, at least one first inlet channel formed inside the substrate, connected to an end of the reaction vessel, and allowing introduction of a reactant aqueous solution containing reactants for nucleic acid amplification into the reaction vessel, a second inlet channel formed inside the substrate, connected to the end of the reaction vessel, and allowing introduction of a fluid that is phase-separated from the reactant aqueous solution and does not participate in amplification reaction into the reaction vessel, and a heating unit installed on the substrate in such a way to thermally contact with the substrate and heating the substrate.

Method of making biochips and the biochips resulting therefrom

Methods for preparing a biochip are provided herein wherein the biomolecular probe to be used with the biochip is alternatively bound to a hydrogel prepolymer prior to or simultaneously with polymerization of the prepolymer. In particularly preferred embodiments, a polyurethane-based hydrogel prepolymer is derivatized with an organic solvent soluble biomolecule, such as a peptide nucleic acid probe in aprotic, organic solvent. Following derivatization of the prepolymer, an aqueous solution, for example sodium bicarbonate, preferably buffered to a pH of about 7.2 to about 9.5, is added to the derivatized prepolymer solution to initiate polymerization of the hydrogel. Alternatively, a water soluble biomolecule, such as DNA or other oligonucleotide, is prepared in an aqueous solution and added to the polyurethane-based hydrogel prepolymer such that derivatization and polymerization occur, essentially, simultaneously. While the hydrogel is polymerizing, it is microspotted onto a solid substrate, preferably a silanated glass substrate, to which the hydrogel microdroplet becomes covalently bound. Most preferably the hydrogel microdroplets are at least about 30 mum thick, for example about 50 mum to about 100 mum thick. The resulting biochips are particularly useful for gene discovery, gene characterization, functional gene analysis and related studies.

Compositions of polyacids and polyethers and methods for their use in reducing adhesions

InactiveUS6869938B1Improve anti-adhesion performanceBiocideSurgeryMicrosphereThrombogenicity
The present invention relates to improved methods for making and using bioadhesive, bioresorbable, anti-adhesion compositions made of intermacromolecular complexes of carboxyl-containing polysaccharides, polyethers, polyacids, polyalkylene oxides, multivalent cations and/or polycations. The polymers are associated with each other, and are then either dried into membranes or sponges, or are used as fluids or microspheres. Bioresorbable, bioadhesive, anti-adhesion compositions are useful in surgery to prevent the formation and reformation of post-surgical adhesions. The compositions are designed to breakdown in-vivo, and thus be removed from the body. Membranes are inserted during surgery either dry or optionally after conditioning in aqueous solutions. The anti-adhesion, bioadhesive, bioresorptive, antithrombogenic and physical properties of such membranes and gels can be varied as needed by carefully adjusting the pH and/or cation content of the polymer casting solutions, polyacid composition, the polyalkylene oxide composition, or by conditioning the membranes prior to surgical use. Multi-layered membranes can be made and used to provide further control over the physical and biological properties of antiadhesion membranes. Membranes and gels can be used concurrently. Antiadhesion compositions may also be used to lubricate tissues and/or medical instruments, and/or deliver drugs to the surgical site and release them locally.

Preparation and characterization of formulations in a high throughput mode

The invention is an automated robotic system for the production and testing of formulations at a very high throughput. It is an integrated system of hardware and software capable of preparing and evaluating hundreds of emulsions per day. The system can formulate aqueous solutions (SL), oil in water emulsions (EW), suspo-emulsions (SE), micro capsule suspensions (CS), micro-emulsions (ME), and suspension concentrates (SC) at the 1 ml to 25 ml scale. The system can process emulsions rapidly in an automated way and enable very flexible formulation recipes to be introduced. The system allows chemists to generate experimental samples of varying recipe and method to be conducted in parallel with projected throughput of up to 1200 formulations processed and characterized per day. Materials and consumables can be distributed from storage storage systems to the work stations where dispensing of ingredients in various states can be performed, including solids, liquids, gels, pastes, suspensions and waxes. The emulsions formed can be characterized using methods including phase diagnosis, turbidity analysis, viscosity and particle sizing using automated test equipment. An integrated module can also perform Tank Mix Compatibility testing in high throughput mode. The modular system allows future processes and tests to be added, either to a station, or as a new station. The software capability includes tracking of processes from start to finish and the integration of analytical data with the as-designed and as-formulated experimental results.

Method for preparing lithium cobaltate by directly using invalid lithium ion battery

The invention provides a method for preparing lithium cobaltate by directly using an invalid lithium ion battery. The method comprises the following steps: crushing the invalid lithium ion battery or scraps generated when a lithium cobaltate battery is produced by a mechanical crusher at normal temperature; adding water and one or more of acetic acid, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid or nitric acid to produce mixed aqueous solution of the battery scraps and acid; filling the mixed aqueous solution into a hermetic pressure reactor, and controlling the temperature in the reactor to be between 50 and 150 DEG C; introducing or adding one leaching additive of sulfur dioxide or hydrogen, or adding hydrazine hydrate; stirring and leaching, cooling, and filtering; adding one precipitator of sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate and ammonium carbonate, or adding composite precipitator consisting of one of the sodium carbonate, the potassium carbonate and the ammonium carbonate and one of sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide to obtain mixture of lithium carbonate, cobalt carbonate and cobalt hydroxide; drying and calcining at high temperature to produce a lithium cobaltate product. The method is particularly suitable for the treatment scale of medium-sized and small enterprises, and is an effective method for directly materializing cobalt secondary resources.
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