The invention provides a clothes dryer self-cleaning filtering device, comprising a condenser, a filter screen, an air duct, a water storage box, a water storage tank, and a drainage pump. An upper drain pipe is arranged between the water storage box and the drainage pump. The water storage tank is internally provided with a water level sensor. The device also comprises a spray thrower arranged in the air duct and between the filter screen and the condenser, a lower drain pipe used to connect the water storage box and the spray thrower, a first sensor in the air duct used to sense line chip accumulation on the filter screen, and a controller used to receive signals transmitted by the first sensor and the water level sensor, and respectively send out instructions to control on-off of the drainage pump and the spray thrower. The clothes dryer self-cleaning filtering device is simple in structure, condensed water can be fully used, and the filter screen and the condenser do not need manual cleaning. The invention also provides a clothes dryer using the self-cleaning filtering device. Through adding the spray thrower in the air duct, line chips can be removed in time, the air duct is kept unblocked, clothes drying time is reduced, energy consumption is saved, and manual labor is not needed.