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3523results about "Active medium shape and construction" patented technology

Apparatus and method for the generation of high-power femtosecond pulses from a fiber amplifier

An apparatus generates femtosecond pulses from laser amplifiers by nonlinear frequency conversion. The implementation of nonlinear frequency-conversion allows the design of highly nonlinear amplifiers at a signal wavelength (SW), while still preserving a high-quality pulse at an approximately frequency-doubled wavelength (FDW). Nonlinear frequency-conversion also allows for limited wavelength tuning of the FDW. As an example, the output from a nonlinear fiber amplifier is frequency-converted. By controlling the polarization state in the nonlinear fiber amplifier and by operating in the soliton-supporting dispersion regime of the host glass, an efficient nonlinear pulse compression for the SW is obtained. The generated pulse width is optimized by utilizing soliton compression in the presence of the Raman-self-frequency shift in the nonlinear fiber amplifier at the SW. High-power pulses are obtained by employing fiber amplifiers with large core-diameters. The efficiency of the nonlinear fiber amplifier is optimized by using a double clad fiber (i.e., a fiber with a double-step refractive index profile) and by pumping light directly into the inner core of this fiber. Periodically poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) is used for efficient conversion of the SW to a FDW. The quality of the pulses at the FDW can further be improved by nonlinear frequency conversion of the compressed and Raman-shifted signal pulses at the SW. The use of Raman-shifting further increases the tuning range at the FDW. For applications in confocal microscopy, a special linear fiber amplifier is used.

Optical spectroscopy apparatus and method for measurement of analyte concentrations or other such species in a specimen employing a semiconductor laser-pumped, small-cavity fiber laser

An optical spectroscopy apparatus determines the concentration of analyte in a specimen that utilizes a single radiation source which is hybrid laser comprising a semiconductor pump laser and small-cavity rare earth fiber laser where laser cavities of both lasers are butt coupled or otherwise optically coupled to form a plurality of laser cavities that produce a plurality of emission wavelengths, one which may be the pump laser emission wavelength at the output of the fiber laser thereby forming a multi-wavelength combined output where the wavelengths substantially match distinguishing spectral characteristic features along at least a portion of a characteristic optical spectrum of the analyte under examination. In lieu of complex data analysis of these wavelengths to determine values representing the concentration of the analyte in an examined specimen, the semiconductor pump laser or lasers are modulated as a plurality of tone frequencies, where at least a first of the modulation frequencies is below the maximum frequency response of the fiber laser so that the first modulation effectively modulates the pump emission wavelength and a first emission wavelength of the fiber laser in the hybrid laser combined output, and at least a second of modulation frequencies is above the maximum frequency response of the fiber laser so that the second modulation effectively modulates the pump emission wavelength but not the first emission wavelength of the fiber laser in the hybrid laser combined output. Further, one or more additional modulation frequencies may be applied to the pump laser which are intermediate of the first and second modulation frequencies where it is at least responsive to at least one further emission wavelength of the fiber laser and also provided in the hybrid laser combined output.

Mode-locked multi-mode fiber laser pulse source

A laser utilizes a cavity design which allows the stable generation of high peak power pulses from mode-locked multi-mode fiber lasers, greatly extending the peak power limits of conventional mode-locked single-mode fiber lasers. Mode-locking may be induced by insertion of a saturable absorber into the cavity and by inserting one or more mode-filters to ensure the oscillation of the fundamental mode in the multi-mode fiber. The probability of damage of the absorber may be minimized by the insertion of an additional semiconductor optical power limiter into the cavity. To amplify and compress optical pulses in a multi-mode (MM) optical fiber, a single-mode is launched into the MM fiber by matching the modal profile of the fundamental mode of the MM fiber with a diffraction-limited optical mode at the launch end, The fundamental mode is preserved in the MM fiber by minimizing mode-coupling by using relatively short lengths of step-index MM fibers with a few hundred modes and by minimizing fiber perturbations. Doping is confined to the center of the fiber core to preferentially amplify the fundamental mode, to reduce amplified spontaneous emission and to allow gain-guiding of the fundamental mode. Gain-guiding allows for the design of systems with length-dependent and power-dependent diameters of the fundamental mode. To allow pumping with high-power laser diodes, a double-clad amplifier structure is employed. For applications in nonlinear pulse-compression, self phase modulation and dispersion in the optical fibers can be exploited. High-power optical pulses may be linearly compressed using bulk optics dispersive delay lines or by chirped fiber Bragg gratings written directly into the SM or MM optical fiber. High-power cw lasers operating in a single near-diffraction-limited mode may be constructed from MM fibers by incorporating effective mode-filters into the laser cavity. Regenerative fiber amplifiers may be constructed from MM fibers by careful control of the recirculating mode. Higher-power Q-switched fiber lasers may be constructed by exploiting the large energy stored in MM fiber amplifiers.

Large diameter optical waveguide, grating, and laser

A large diameter optical waveguide, grating, and laser includes a waveguide 10 having at least one core 12 surrounded by a cladding 14, the core propagating light in substantially a few transverse spatial modes; and having an outer waveguide dimension d2 of said waveguide being greater than about 0.3 mm. At least one Bragg grating 16 may be impressed in the waveguide 10. The waveguide 10 may be axially compressed which causes the length L of the waveguide 10 to decrease without buckling. The waveguide 10 may be used for any application where a waveguide needs to be compression tuned, e.g., compression-tuned fiber gratings and lasers or other applications. Also, the waveguide 10 exhibits lower mode coupling from the core 12 to the cladding 14 and allows for higher optical power to be used when writing gratings 16 without damaging the waveguide 10. The shape of the waveguide 10 may have other geometries (e.g., a “dogbone” shape) and/or more than one grating or pair of gratings may be used and more than one core may be used. The core and/or cladding 12,14 may be doped with a rare-earth dopant and/or may be photosensitive. At least a portion of the core 12 may be doped between a pair of gratings 50,52 to form a fiber laser or the grating 16 or may be constructed as a tunable DFB fiber laser or an interactive fiber laser within the waveguide 10. The waveguide may resemble a short “block” or a longer “cane” type, depending on the application and dimensions used.

High density methods for producing diode-pumped micro lasers

A miniaturized laser package is provided comprising a standard semiconductor laser package modified to accept a solid state microchip assembly pumped by the diode laser. Standard packages described in the invention include TO and HHL packages all of which are characterized by small dimensions, well sealed housing, robust mounting features, known characterized materials and economical production and assembly techniques characteristic of the semiconductor processing industry. In particular, the microchip lasers are produced using high density techniques that lend themselves to mass production, resulting in very low unit costs. At the same time, the compact laser devices provide a solution to the problem of providing laser radiation at high beam quality and good reliability features with a variety of wavelengths and operational characteristics and low noise features not available from diode lasers yet relying primarily on standardized designs, materials and techniques common to diode laser manufacturing. The devices constructed according to methods taught by the invention can therefore be readily integrated into numerous applications where power, reliability and performance are at a premium but low cost is essential, eventually replacing diode lasers in many existing systems but also enabling many new commercial, biomedical, scientific and military systems.
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