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1827 results about "Cost effectiveness" patented technology

Cost effectiveness is a category of metrics that are used to measure the results of strategies, programs, projects and operations where benefits are non-financial. Cost effectiveness can be used to benchmark results and compare alternative strategies and approaches.

Method of stacking thin substrates by transfer bonding

This invention describes a method of stacking, bonding, and electrically interconnecting a plurality of thin integrated circuit wafers to form an interconnected stack of integrated circuit layers. The first integrated circuit layer is formed by conventional processing on a silicon wafer to the stage where bond pads are patterned on a wiring layer interconnecting the subjacent semiconductive devices. The remaining integrated circuit layers are formed by first processing a standard wafer to form integrated circuit devices and wiring levels up to but not including bond pads. Each of these wafers is mounted onto a handler wafer by its upper face with a sacrificial bonding agent. The wafer is thinned, permanently fastened to the top surface of the first base wafer by a non-conductive adhesive applied to the thinned under face, and dismounted from the handler. Vertical openings are etched through the thinned layer to the bond pads on the subjacent wafer. Robust conductive pass-through plugs with integrated upper bond pads are formed in the openings. Additional thinned integrated circuit layers may be prepared, thinned, cemented onto the stack. Wiring interconnections can be made between any two or more layers. The process is unique in that it can be used to further stack and interconnect any number of thinned wafer layers to form a three dimensional integrated circuits, including MEMS devices. This approach provides a low temperature wafer bonding method using an adhesive which results in process simplicity and cost effectiveness by eliminating an additional masking and patterning process for under bump metal thereby enabling standard wafers to be integrated into a 3D stack with existing wire bonded wafers.

Method for predicting the onset or change of a medical condition

InactiveUS20050119534A1Minimizes adverse reactionMaximize therapeutic responseDrug and medicationsSurgeryMedical recordCost effectiveness
Nonlinear generalized dynamic regression analysis system and method of the present invention preferably uses all available data at all time points and their measured time relationship to each other to predict responses of a single output variable or multiple output variables simultaneously. The present invention, in one aspect, is a system and method for predicting whether an intervention administered to a patient changes the physiological, pharmacological, pathophysiological, or pathopsychological state of the patient with respect to a specific medical condition. The present invention uses the theory of martingales to derive the probabilistic properties for statistical evaluations. The approach uniquely models information in the following domains: (1) analysis of clinical trials and medical records including efficacy, safety, and diagnostic patterns in humans and animals, (2) analysis and prediction of medical treatment cost-effectiveness, (3) the analysis of financial data, (4) the prediction of protein structure, (5) analysis of time dependent physiological, psychological, and pharmacological data, and any other field where ensembles of sampled stochastic processes or their generalizations are accessible. A quantitative medical condition evaluation or medical score provides a statistical determination of the existence or onset of a medical condition.

Private, auditable vehicle positioning system and on-board unit for same

This invention relates to a system and method to generate a private, auditable, evidentiary quality record of the location-history of an asset or person. This invention addresses ten critical improvements over existing systems that are proposed or used for metering for payment services for tolling roads, parking or pay-as-you-drive insurance, namely, cost-effective location accuracy in harsh signal environments, evidentiary assurance of location estimation, handling of dynamic and stationary positioning in a single device, high-ratio compression for a set of stationary positions in urban canyon, high-ratio compression for a dynamic tracklog in urban canyon, high-ratio compression for a set of asset motion behaviors, a method of remote device health check, including anti-tampering, removal of residual price assignment errors, anonymous use without on-board maps, and a method of deconsolidating payments to multiple payees with multiple payment regimes. This system can be applied to road-pricing, congestion-pricing, metered-by-the-minute parking and pay-as-you-drive insurance, incorporating privacy management, and legal admissibility of the evidentiary record. This same device can also be applied to vehicular fleets, military ordinance, or other location audits for assets whether motorized or not, as might be needed in evidence of contract fulfillment or other forms of non-realtime geofencing audits.
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