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5715 results about "Nitrogen oxide" patented technology

Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds: Nitric oxide, also known as nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen oxide Nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxide Nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxide Nitrosylazide, nitrogen oxide Dinitrogen trioxide, nitrogen oxide Dinitrogen tetroxide, nitrogen oxide Dinitrogen pentoxide, nitrogen oxide Trinitramide, nitrogen oxide In addition, nitrogen oxides form several radicals. The most stable of these is the nitrate anion: Nitrate, nitrogen oxide but other nitrogen oxoanions include nitrite, peroxonitrite, trioxodinitrate, and nitroxylate. In atmospheric chemistry, air pollution, and related fields, nitrogen oxides refers specifically to NOₓ. Only the first three of these compounds can be isolated at room temperature. N₂O₃, N₂O₄, and N₂O₅ all decompose rapidly at room temperature. NO₃, N₄O, and N(NO₂)₃ are very reactive. N₂O is stable and rather unreactive at room temperature, while NO and NO₂ are quite reactive but nevertheless quite stable when isolated. Nitric oxide, NO Nitrogen dioxide, NO₂

Thin films

Thin films are formed by formed by atomic layer deposition, whereby the composition of the film can be varied from monolayer to monolayer during cycles including alternating pulses of self-limiting chemistries. In the illustrated embodiments, varying amounts of impurity sources are introduced during the cyclical process. A graded gate dielectric is thereby provided, even for extremely thin layers. The gate dielectric as thin as 2 nm can be varied from pure silicon oxide to oxynitride to silicon nitride. Similarly, the gate dielectric can be varied from aluminum oxide to mixtures of aluminum oxide and a higher dielectric material (e.g., ZrO2) to pure high k material and back to aluminum oxide. In another embodiment, metal nitride (e.g., WN) is first formed as a barrier for lining dual damascene trenches and vias. During the alternating deposition process, copper can be introduced, e.g., in separate pulses, and the copper source pulses can gradually increase in frequency, forming a transition region, until pure copper is formed at the upper surface. Advantageously, graded compositions in these and a variety of other contexts help to avoid such problems as etch rate control, electromigration and non-ohmic electrical contact that can occur at sharp material interfaces. In some embodiments additional seed layers or additional transition layers are provided.

Method for forming nitrogen-containing oxide thin film using plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition

A method for forming a nitrogen-containing oxide thin film by using plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition is provided. In the method, the nitrogen-containing oxide thin film is deposited by supplying a metal source compound and oxygen gas into a reactor in a cyclic fashion with sequential alternating pulses of the metal source compound and the oxygen gas, wherein the oxygen gas is activated into plasma in synchronization of the pulsing thereof, and a nitrogen source gas is further sequentially pulsed into the reactor and activated into plasma over the substrate in synchronization with the pulsing thereof. According to the method, a dense nitrogen-containing oxide thin film can be deposited at a high rate, and a trace of nitrogen atoms can be incorporated in situ into the nitrogen-containing oxide thin film, thereby increasing the breakdown voltage of the film.

Method of self-cleaning of carbon-based film

A method of self-cleaning a plasma reactor upon depositing a carbon-based film on a substrate a pre-selected number of times, includes: (i) exciting oxygen gas and / or nitrogen oxide gas to generate a plasma; and (ii) exposing to the plasma a carbon-based film accumulated on an upper electrode provided in the reactor and a carbon-based film accumulated on an inner wall of the reactor.

Measuring nitrogen oxides and other gases by ozone formation

A photochemical sensing system enables the measurement of nitrogen oxides (nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide) by photolyzing nitrogen dioxide to form oxygen atoms which combine with oxygen molecules to form ozone. Ozone reacts with nitric oxide to for nitrogen dioxide-decreasing ozone. Changes in ozone concentration are measured as a surrogate for the nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide. Any species which photolyzes to yield oxygen atoms may be measured by this technique. Additional specificity for nitrogen oxides is conferred by allowing the nitric oxide to react with the ozone to recreate the nitrogen dioxide. By periodically photolyzing the nitrogen dioxide (to form ozone), and then allowing the resulting nitric oxide to react with the ozone (thereby reducing ozone), a pulsed signal is obtained whose amplitude is proportional to the total amount of nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide present. Medical applications include measuring nitric oxide concentrations in expired air samples.

Method for reducing NOX in combustion flue gas using metal-containing additives

Various methods for decreasing the amount of nitrogen oxides released to the atmosphere as a component of combustion gas mixtures are provided. The methods specifically provide for the removal of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide (NOx) from gas mixtures emitted from stationary combustion systems. In particular, methods for improving efficiency of nitrogen oxide reduction from combustion systems include injecting metal-containing compounds into the main combustion zone and / or the reburning zone of a combustion system. The metal containing compounds react with active combustion species, and these reactions change radical concentrations and significantly improve NOx conversion to molecular nitrogen. The metal-containing additives can be injected with the main fuel, in the main combustion zone, with secondary or reburning fuel addition, or at several locations in the main combustion zone and reburning zone. Optionally, nitrogenous reducing agents and / or overfire air can be injected downstream to further increase NOx reduction.

Control unit and control method for reductant supply device

There are provided a reductant supply device and a control method for the reductant supply device, which can prevent heat damage of a reductant injection valve, and also prevent crystallization of urea solution due to excessive cooling of the solution reductant.The reductant supply device which is used in an exhaust gas purification device that injects and supplies, as a reductant, a urea solution to an exhaust gas upstream side of a reduction catalyst disposed in an exhaust gas passage of an internal combustion engine, and that reduces and purifies nitrogen oxides contained in exhaust gas using the reduction catalyst, the reductant supply device having a reductant injection valve that is fixed to an exhaust pipe on the exhaust gas upstream side of the reduction catalyst, includes: a cooling water circulation passage that circulates at least part of cooling water of the internal combustion engine to cool the reductant injection valve; flow rate control means for adjusting a flow rate of cooling water flowing through the cooling water circulation passage; temperature detection means for detecting a temperature of the reductant injection valve; and control means for controlling the flow rate control means based on the temperature of the reductant injection valve.
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