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902 results about "Surface level" patented technology

Semiconductor device, manufacturing method, and electronic device

In a thin film transistor (1), a gate insulating layer (4) is formed on a gate electrode (3) formed on an insulating substrate (2). Formed on the gate insulating layer (4) is a semiconductor layer (5). Formed on the semiconductor layer (5) are a source electrode (6) and a drain electrode (7). A protective layer (8) covers them, so that the semiconductor layer (5) is blocked from an atmosphere. The semiconductor layer (5) (active layer) is made of, e.g., a semiconductor containing polycrystalline ZnO to which, e.g., a group V element is added. The protective layer (8) thus formed causes decrease of a surface level of the semiconductor layer (5). This eliminates a depletion layer spreading therewithin. Accordingly, the ZnO becomes an n-type semiconductor indicating an intrinsic resistance, with the result that too many free electrons are generated. However, the added element works on the ZnO as an accepter impurity, so that the free electrons are reduced. This decreases a gate voltage required for removal of the free electrons, so that the threshold voltage of the thin film transistor (1) becomes on the order of 0V. This allows practical use of a semiconductor device which has an active layer made of zinc oxide and which includes an protective layer for blocking the active layer from an atmosphere.
Owner:SHARP KK +2

Driving device

A plurality of movable lenses included in a zoom lens system are driven individually by piezoelectric actuators provided one for each lens. Two driving rods are arranged at different positions along the same line in such a way that neither of the driving rods reaches into the driving stroke of the lens driven by the other. Each driving rod has a piezoelectric actuator provided at its end farther from the other. Alternatively, a plurality of piezoelectric actuators are fixed to a single base block having a groove or a surface level difference to restrict propagation of vibration between the piezoelectric actuators. A graduated member having N-pole and S-pole regions formed alternatively thereon with a predetermined pitch is fixed, parallel to the driving rods, to the driving device itself. A magnetic resistance sensor is attached to each lens frame so as to face the graduated member. Based on the outputs of the sensors, the positions of the individual lenses are detected.

Image texture tactile representation system based on force/haptic interaction equipment

The invention discloses an image texture tactile representation system based on force/haptic interaction equipment for virtual reality human-computer interaction, which is characterized in that when the virtual proxy of the force/haptic interaction equipment slides on a texture surface of a virtual object in a virtual environment, the surface height of the object texture corresponding to the contact point and a coefficient of kinetic friction for reflecting the rough degree of the contact point are firstly obtained on the basis of an image processing method, a continuous normal contact force model reflecting the concave-convex degree of the contact point and a tangential friction model reflecting the rough degree of the contact point are respectively established, and finally the texture contact force is fed back to an operator in real time through the force/haptic interaction equipment so as to realize the force haptic express and reappear when fingers slide over the surface texture of the virtual object. The feedback continuous change normal force not only enables the human-computer interaction to be more real, but also enables an interaction system to be more stable, and the feedback friction related to the rough degree of the contact point also further enhances the sense of reality when the texture reappears.

Method and apparatus for detecting surface characteristics on a mask blank

An optical system and method configured to detect surface height variations on a mask blank. The optical system comprises a Wollaston prism, optics and first and second detectors. The Wollaston prism splits an incident beam of radiation into a first beam and a second beam. The first beam has a first polarization. The second beam has a second polarization. The optics directs the first and second beams along first and second paths onto first and second illuminated areas on a surface of the mask blank. The first and second illuminated areas reflect or transmit portions of the first and second beams to produce first and second reflected or transmitted beams. The first and second detectors detect the first and second reflected or transmitted beams and produce first and second signals in response to the first and second reflected or transmitted beams. A multiple way coupler may also be used for detecting height variation or other features on a mask blank. Two substantially parallel optical incident radiation beams are transmitted to the mask blank. The multiple way coupler mixes portions of the two beams after they have been reflected or transmitted by two different areas of said mask blank to provide three or more outputs which can be analyzed to provide information on height variation or other features on the mask blank.

Reduction of laser speckle in photolithography by controlled disruption of spatial coherence of laser beam

Speckle of a laser beam is reduced by inserting an anti-speckle apparatus in the beam path to disrupt its spatial coherence while maintaining its temporal coherence. In one embodiment, the anti-speckle apparatus is a phase retarder plate bearing periodic optically-coated regions. Transmission or reflection of the beam through coated and uncoated regions causes an internal phase shift of first beam portions relative to second beam portions, thereby disrupting spatial coherence. Size and thickness of the coated regions can be carefully tailored to meet requirements of stepper and scanner equipment manufacturers for maximum allowable spatial coherence expressed as a minimum permissible number of coherent cells across the beam cross-section. An alternative embodiment of an anti-speckle apparatus is a scattering plate bearing a roughened surface. Transmission or reflection of the beam by the roughened surface disrupts the beam's spatial coherence. The correlation length and/or surface height of structures on the roughened surface of the scattering plate may be adjusted to achieve desired divergency and spatial coherence. A liquid matching medium or solid overcoating may be contacted with the roughened surface to adjust the index of refraction at the interface with the roughened surface. The anti-speckle apparatus may serve to outcouple the laser beam, as well, and a fly eye lens may be positioned after the anti-speckle appartus.

Exposure apparatus and exposure method

An exposure apparatus and an exposure method that minimize the range over which exposing light becomes defocused even when a non-level portion is present within each shot are provided. One shot is selected from a plurality of shots (exposure unit areas) set on a wafer (S 50). 49 measurement points are set in the selected shot and the three-dimensional coordinates of each measurement point are determined (S 70). Next, an arithmetic operation is performed using the 49 sets of three-dimensional coordinate data to ascertain an "in-shot focus plane" (S 90). This arithmetic operation may be performed through, for instance, the method of least squares. The extents of positional deviation between the surface of the selected shot and the in-shot focus plane is ascertained and the extents of deviation are stored in memory as "adjustment values" (S 110). An exposure shot to undergo exposure processing is selected and the surface level variation manifesting at the exposure shot is measured. The adjustment values are subtracted from the results of the measurement and exposing light is irradiated on the exposure shot while moving the wafer along the vertical direction in conformance to the result of the subtraction (S 130).

System and method for shape reconstruction from optical images

Reconstructing the shape of the surface of an object in greater than two dimensions is performed using a noise-tolerant reconstruction process and / or a multi-resolution reconstruction process. The noise-tolerant reconstruction process can be a Bayesian reconstruction process that adds noise information representing the noise distribution in optical image(s) of the object to surface gradient information estimated from the images to determine surface height information that defines the shape of the surface of the object in greater than two dimensions. In the multi-resolution reconstruction process, for each resolution of the image, the surface gradient information is estimated and the surface height information is calculated using the estimated surface gradient information. To obtain the final surface height map, the surface height information from each resolution is combined to reconstruct the shape of the surface of the object in greater than two dimensions. The multi-resolution reconstruction process can be used with the Bayesian reconstruction process or with another decomposition process, such as a wavelet decomposition process.

Hydrocarbon Well Performance Monitoring System

A system and method for real-time data acquisition and presentation of force, position, load, pressures, and movement within a subterranean well pumping system, such as an oil well. Data is gathered using sensors attached to a surface level pump drive and wellhead system. Well structural data and well production data are combined therewith to generate a real-time display of down-hole well operation, including animated graphics of the pump operation, including pump movement, rod and tubing stretch, fluid movement, gas compression, system forces, and fluid pressures. Liquid levels are tested using an acoustic liquid level instrument, and incorporated to improve well performance analysis.

Method of removing radioactive materials from a submerged state and/or preparing spent nuclear fuel for dry storage

A system, apparatus and method of processing and / or removing radioactive materials from a body of water that utilizes the buoyancy of the water itself to minimize the load experienced by a crane and / or other lifting equipment. In one aspect, the invention is a method comprising: a) submerging a container having a top, a bottom, and a cavity in a body of water having a surface level, the cavity filling with water; b) positioning radioactive material within the cavity of the submerged container; c) raising the submerged container until the top of the containment apparatus is above the surface level of the body of water while a major portion of the container remains below the surface level of the body of water; and d) removing bulk water from the cavity while the top of the container remains above the surface level of the body of water and a portion of the container remains submerged. The bulk water can be added back into the cavity to add neutron shielding after the container is placed in a staging area and prior to personnel performing the desired operations to the container. As a result, gamma radiation and neutron shielding of the container can be maximized for any crane capacity.

System for correcting aberrations and distortions in EUV lithography

A system for correcting aberration and distortion in EUV lithography places a reticle on a deformable reticle chuck, and a reticle height sensor is used to measure the surface height of the reticle placed on the deformable reticle chuck. An optical system projects EUV radiation onto the reticle and collects and projects reflected EUV radiation from the reticle through its exit pupil onto a wafer placed on a wafer chuck. A deformable mirror disposed proximal to the exit pupil may also be controlled for this purpose. The deformable reticle chuck and the deformable mirror are controlled such that aberration and distortion of an image of the reticle formed on the wafer by the optical system are corrected based on the height measured by the reticle height sensor. The deformable reticle chuck includes a supporting structure, a deformable membrane disposed above and being comprised of a dielectric layer and a conductive layer, a voltage source connected to the conductive coating on the reticle and the conductive layer to generate an electrostatic attractive force between them, a plurality of actuator rods each connected to a corresponding one of actuators, and a coolant gas inside a chamber formed between the membrane and the top surface of the supporting structure. A deformable wafer chuck and wafer height sensor may be included to provide further correction of the image.

Apparatus and method for precise lapping of recessed and protruding elements in a workpiece

A lapping method utilizing textured and conditioned lapping plates most suitable for finishing magnetic heads resulting in improved surface quality, less sensitivity to electrical shorts due to smears, and reduced surface height difference between the head elements exposed at the slider air bearing surface. A rough lapping phase is followed by a polishing phase that maintains the same mechanical motion between the work piece and lapping plate but utilizes only the lapping plate without abrasives of any kind to polish the work piece surface, and to clean up any deep textured marks resulting from the diamond slurry phase. A conductive liquid is utilized to provide lubrication and to minimize static charge.

Material containing metal ion ligand complex producing nitric oxide in contact with blood

Biocompatible materials that have the ability to release nitric oxide (NO) in situ at the surface-blood interface when in contact with blood. The materials which may be polymers (e.g., polyurethane, poly(vinyl chloride), silicone rubbers), metals, such as stainless steel, carbon, and the like are provided with biocatalysts or biomimetic catalysts on their surface that have nitrite, nitrate, and / or nitrosothiol-reducing capability. Illustratively, the catalysts are adsorbed or immobilized at the surface of the material. The catalysts can act on endogenous nitrite, nitrate, or nitrosothiols within the blood creating a local increase in the NO levels at the surface of the material. An illustrative enzymatic biocatalyst is mammalian xanthine oxidase. In another illustrative embodiment, a biomimetic catalyst is a copper (Cu(II)-ligand complex, e.g. dibenzo[e,k]-2,3,8,9-tetraphenyl-1,4,7,10-tetraaza-cyclododeca-1,3,7,9-tetraene. In some cases, lipophilic salts of nitrite / nitrate (e.g., tridodecylmethylammonium nitrite (TDMA+NO2− / NO3−)) or certain salts of nitrosothiols can be doped within a polymer material, or an underlying polymeric film, to create a reservoir of nitrite or nitrosothiol that continuously leaks into the immobilized catalytic layer. Adequate levels of endogenous reducing equivalents are present within blood to provide catalytically-generated surface levels of NO that are above the threshold reportedly required to prevent platelet adhesion or activation.

Optical scanning system for surface inspection

In an optical scanning system for detecting particles and pattern defects on a sample surface, a light beam is focused to an illuminated spot on the surface and the spot is scanned across the surface along a scan line. A detector is positioned adjacent to the surface to collect scattered light from the spot where the detector includes a one- or two-dimensional array of sensors. Light scattered from the illuminated spot at each of a plurality of positions along the scan line is focused onto a corresponding sensor in the array. A plurality of detectors symmetrically placed with respect to the illuminating beam detect laterally and forward scattered light from the spot. The spot is scanned over arrays of scan line segments shorter than the dimensions of the surface. A bright field channel enables the adjustment of the height of the sample surface to correct for errors caused by height variations of the surface. Different defect maps provided by the output of the detectors can be compared to identify and classify the defects. The imaging function of the array of sensors combines the advantages of a scanning system and an imaging system while improving signal / background ratio of the system.
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