A compressed sensing signal collection method based on filtering includes the following steps: firstly, sensing equipment is used for collecting target signals x (t) in an independent sampling period and carries out digital quantification on the signals in an analog/digit (A/D) mode. Secondly, the dimension of the quantified signals x (i) is reduced. Lastly, the signals with the reduced dimension are reconfigured. The t means the sampling time, and the i means the sequence of the quantified signals. The detailed method of dimension-reduction of the quantified signals is that the quantified signals respond to a difference equation of a filter through finite impulse, and the difference equation is that i= 1, ..., M, wherein h (0), ..., h (L-1) is the coefficients of the filter. The design constructs a following toeplitz measurement array based on a compressed sensing signal collection framework of the filter, and the toeplitz measurement array is that i= 1, ..., M is observed, wherein b1,..., bL are treated as coefficients of the filter. The singular value of a sub-array phi FT is an arithmetic value of a characteristic value of a Gramm array which is that G (phi F, T) = phi ` FT phi FT, all the characteristic values that lambada i belongs to (1- delta K, 1+ delta K), wherein i= 1, ..., T of G (phi F, T) are tested, and the original signals are reconfigured by solving the following l1 optimization problems.