The invention belongs to the technical field of barren mountain greening ecological protection, relates to a rock vegetation establishment and construction technology for barren mountain rock greening and preventing water loss and soil erosion, particularly to preparation and construction process of a barren mountain rock greening material. In the early stage, the barren mountain rock greening material is a liquid-solid mixture and comprises adhesives, organic soil, foam materials, plant seeds and the like. The barren mountain rock greening material is placed on barren mountain rocks or the outer wall of a building through spray-seeding, capable of foaming at normal temperature, and finally formed into an adhesive layer, an organic soil layer, a porous foam framework for fixing the organic soil layer and plant seeds and a phytocoenosium layer. The barren mountain rock greening material is pollution-free and capable of achieving natural degradation in a certain period of time. According to the barren mountain greening technology, establishment and construction can be successfully achieved through one-time spray-seeding, the construction technology is simple, later manual maintenance is not required, and the material is environment-friendly, can be firmly adhered to rocks or the surface of the building, resist rain impact, hold moisture, retain fertilizer and be high in air permeability.