743results about How to "Low viscosity" patented technology

Semi-frozen food product producing machine

The present invention includes a dual purpose carbonator/blending bottle connected to a source of beverage syrup, a source of potable water and to a source of pressurized carbon dioxide gas. The dual purpose bottle is retained within an ice bank water bath tank. A pair of ratio valves provide for metering the water and syrup at a desired ratio. The mixed beverage first flows through a serpentine coil, also located in water bath, and then flow into the dual purpose bottle. A refrigeration system provides for cooling an evaporator located in the water tank for forming the ice bank thereon. The carbonated beverage then flows from the bottle into a freeze cylinder. The freeze cylinder also includes a further evaporator coiled around an exterior perimeter thereof. The freeze cylinder evaporator is connected to and cooled by the same refrigeration system that cools the evaporator in the water bath tank. A scraping mechanism within the cylinder provides for scraping frozen beverage from the inner surface of the cylinder. A control mechanism provides for controlling the refrigeration system and the cooling of both evaporators. The beverage is therefore pre-cooled to a temperature just above its freezing point before delivery to the freeze cylinder. Thus, less cooling power is needed to reduce the beverage to a frozen state. The present invention utilizes a method of controlling the operation of the refrigeration system and the cooling of both evaporators thereof. The control system provides for directing refrigerant to one or the other of the evaporators as is most efficient so as to avoid short cycling or pressure build up. The present invention uses a control strategy that can more accurately maintain a pre-selected temperature differential between the inlet and outlet temperatures of the evaporators. The control algorithm utilizes a proportional integral differential control approach that safely permits a much narrower temperature difference so that a greater length of each freeze cylinder evaporator can be utilized for efficient heat transfer cooling.

Lubricants with enhanced thermal conductivity containing nanomaterial for automatic transmission fluids, power transmission fluids and hydraulic steering applications

InactiveUS20080287326A1Low viscosityUniform and stable dispersionBase-materialsShear fieldViscosity index
A lubricant composition having an enhanced thermal conductivity, up to 80% greater than its conventional analogues, and methods of preparation for these fluids are identified. One preferred composition contains a base oil, nanomaterial, and a dispersing agent or surfactant for the purpose of stabilizing the nanomaterial. One preferred nanomaterial is a high thermal conductivity graphite, exceeding 80 W/m in thermal conductivity. The graphite is ground, milled, or naturally prepared to obtain a mean particle size less than 500 nm in diameter, and preferably less than 100 nm, and most preferably less than 50 nm. The graphite is dispersed in the fluid by one or more of various methods, including ultrasonication, milling, and chemical dispersion. Carbon nanostructures such as nanotubes, nanofibrils, and nanoparticles are another type of graphitic structure useful in the present invention. Other high thermal conductivity carbon materials are also acceptable. To confer long-term stability, the use of one or more chemical dispersants or surfactants is useful. The thermal conductivity enhancement, compared to the fluid without graphite, is proportional to the amount of nanomaterials added. The graphite nanomaterials contribute to the overall fluid viscosity, partly or completely eliminating the need for viscosity index improvers and providing a very high viscosity index. Particle size and dispersing chemistry is controlled to get the desired combination of viscosity and thermal conductivity increase from the base oil while controlling the amount of temporary viscosity loss in shear fields. The resulting fluids have unique properties due to the high thermal conductivity and high viscosity index of the suspended particles, as well as their small size.

Epoxy resin compositions for fiber-reinforced composite materials, process for production of the materials and fiber-reinforced composite materials

The present invention relates to an epoxy resin composition for fiber reinforced composite material comprising the following components (1)-(3) as essential components, their mixing ratios meeting the following conditions (I)-(IV), and component (3) being dissolved homogeneously: component (1): epoxy resin that is liquid at room temperature, component (2): aromatic polyamine that is liquid at room temperature, component (3): diaminodiphenylsulfone, condition (I): The proportion of component (1) relative to the entire epoxy resin in the composition is 60-100 wt %, condition (II): The sum of the proportions of components (2) and (3) relative to the entire polyamine in the composition is 70-100 wt %, condition (III): The proportion of component (3) relative to the entire polyamine in the composition is 25-60 wt %, and condition (IV): The stoichiometric ratio of the entire polyamine to the entire epoxy resin in the composition is 0.7-1.3. Another embodiment of the invention relates to an epoxy resin composition for fiber reinforced composite material that contains at least the following components (4)-(6), forms a cured product with a theoretical molecular weight between crosslinking points in the range of 250-350 g/mol, and has an initial viscosity at 80° C. of 1-500 MPa.s: (4): aromatic epoxy resin with tri- or higher functionality, (5): aromatic epoxy resin with di- or higher and lower than tri-functionality, and (6): aromatic polyamine, the molecular weight between crosslinking points being defined as the weight of the entire cured epoxy resin divided by the number of crosslinking points contained in the entire cured epoxy resin. The invention also relates to an epoxy resin composition for fiber reinforced composite material that consists of the following components (7) and (8): (7) a polyglycidyl ether of phenol aralkyl resin as represented by the following formula: where R<1>, R<2>, R<3 >and R<4>denote a hydrogen atom, an alkyl group having 1-8 carbon atoms, or a halogen atom, and m and n denote an integer of 1-4 and a real number of 0 or more and less than 1, respectively, and (8) polyamine. With the constitution described above, the present invention can provide a liquid epoxy resin composition for low cost production of high performance fiber reinforced composite material, that has a low viscosity at relatively low temperatures, and that after being cured, the cured product is high in glass transition temperature, elastic modulus and toughness while being small in the glass temperature decrease caused by water absorption and also small in the coefficient of linear expansion; and can provide a method to produce fiber reinforced composite material therefrom. Fiber reinforced composite material produced according to the present invention can serve as material for parts of aircraft, including main wing, tail, rotor blade, fairing, cowl, and door; parts of spacecraft, including motor case and main wing; and parts of space satellite body structure. They can also be used preferably as material for automobile chassis and railroad vehicle body structure.
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