The invention discloses a sublevel shrinkage caving stage open afterwards filling mining method. In the earlier stage of stoping, caved ores are utilized to support surrounding rocks on a top tray, and in the later stage of stoping, a goaf area is filled with fillers to control ground pressure so as to achieve safe and efficient mining. Ore blocks are mined in two steps, mining blocks in step two are stoped after the mining blocks in step one are stoped and filled. After the ores are completely let out, the goaf area is filled with the fillers to control the ground pressure. Because the stoping modes of sublevel ore caving, sublevel shrinkage, final ore drawing and empty area afterwards filling are adopted, the mining method has large one-time filling amount and low cost; the method adopts middle-deep hole drilling and blasting and carry scraper ore removal, and the device has high level and large production capacity; the method has the advantages of large production capacity of the sublevel caving method and the stage open stope method, high recovery rate of the filling method, and earth surface protection; the safety is good, and drilling, ore removal and other operations are all carried out in a sublevel drilling and ore removal approach roadway; and the ores can be removed in advance, and the ores can be removed partially after the first sublevel is ready.