The invention discloses a method for harmless disposal and recycling of aluminum ash. The method comprises steps of raw material water immersion nitrogen and chlorine removal, calcination fluorine removal, alkali fusion sintering, sintering material dissolving-out and purifying impurity removal. Aluminum ash generated in metal aluminum smelting process is employed as a raw material, after metal aluminum is recycled through secondary processing, nitrides are removed through water immersion, fluorides are removed through calcinations, alkali fusion sintering is carried out, the sintering materials are dissolved out, impurities are removed through a sodium aluminate solution, the processed aluminum ash is employed as a raw material for producing sand-shaped aluminum oxide. Ammonia gas generated in the aluminum ash harmless disposal process can be employed as an ammonium production raw material, a chlorination liquid generated can be employed as a chlorate production raw material, and silicon fluoride gas generated in the calcination process is absorbed by an aqueous solution. The method is simple and practical, environmental protection benefits are high, the production efficiency is high, the device investment is low, and energy consumption is low. Harmless and recycling disposal of hazardous wastes can be achieved. The obtained product can be applied in practical production.