Integrated active photonic device such as optical amplifiers, lasers, light emitters, photodetectors, optical modulators, optical switches, plasmonic devices, all-optical devices, and active photonic devices with high efficiency capable of very low power consumption, low optical loss, and small device size are of interest. An efficient optical waveguide structure for achieving high overlapping between the optical beam mode and the active electro-active region leads to reduced power consumption, low optical loss, and small device size. In an embodiment, low power consumption, low optical loss, and small device size are enabled by a semiconductor active photonic device structure, together with an active semiconductor material that is an electro-optic or electro-absorption or gain material, that are appropriately doped with carriers to substantially lower the power consumption and still maintain the high device performance. In another embodiment, an efficient optical coupling structure further enables low optical loss. Various embodiments combined enable the active photonic device to reach lower power consumption, lower optical loss, and smaller device size than previously possible in the prior arts.