The present invention provides novel biomaterials comprising one or more of Mg, Zn and F ions in a carbonate-containing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) system. The biomaterial may contain Mg, Zn, F, Mg and Zn, Mg and F, Zn and F, or Mg, Zn and F. The biomaterial may be substantially similar in composition to bone mineral (a carbonate apatite). The biomaterial may feature slow release of Mg, Zn, F, Ca, and P ions. The biphasic calcium phosphate, BCP, may be a mixture of unsubstituted hydroxyapatite (HA) and unsubstituted .-TCP, Ca3(PO4)2. BCP of varying HA/.-TCP ratios may be produced by sintering calcium-deficient apatite, for instance having a Ca/P<1.5, 1.6, 1.67, 1.75 or 1.8 that has been prepared either by a precipitation or by a hydrolysis method or by a solid-state reaction. The amount of each component (by weight %) present in the biomaterials may be as follows: Mg 0.5 to 12 wt %, Zn 1 to 12 wt %, F 0.1 to 4 wt %, calcium 20 to 40 wt %, phosphate 10 to 20 wt %, and carbonate (CO3) 1 to 20 wt %. The biomaterial may further comprise one or more other ion such as strontium, manganese, copper, boron or silicate, or one or more other organic moiety such as a protein, a peptide, or a nutraceutical which may provide antioxidant, anti-bacterial or anti-inflammatory properties. The invention also provides methods of inhibiting bone resorption, methods of treating osteoporosis or delaying the onset of osteoporosis, methods of treating a bone fracture, and methods of inhibiting osteoclast activity. Further, the invention provides methods of treating or reversing bone deficiencies such as bone loss, similar to osteoporosis, caused all or in part by a mineral deficient diet, a disease such as cancer or osteopenia, a treatment such as steroid therapy or radiation therapy, or a physical condition such as immobilization.