The invention relates to an advanced treatment process and device of coal chemical industry wastewater. The process comprises the following steps: removing oil, performing deacidification and deamination, performing centrifugal extraction and dephenolization, performing catalytic wet oxidation and performing biochemical treatment. The device comprises an oil removal pool, a deacidification and deamination regulating reservoir, an ammonia still, a high speed centrifuge, a catalytic wet oxidation regulating reservoir, a catalytic wet oxidation tower, a biochemical regulating reservoir and an A/O biochemical system which are connected with one another sequentially. The indirect emission standard requirements in the national coking chemical industrial pollutant discharge standard (GB16171-2012) can be met after main pollutants such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), oil, ammonia nitrogen and phenol in coal chemical industry wastewater are treated, and ammonia water and crude phenol can be recovered. Compared with the prior art, the advanced treatment process of coal chemical industry wastewater has the beneficial effects that sewage produced in coal chemical industry is treated with a clear target on the basis of characteristics of the coal chemical industry production process, so that the indirect emission standard requirements are met, available resources in the sewage are recovered, and sewage resource treatment is really realized.